Thursday, May 14, 2020

Annotated Bibliography On Sql Server - 1354 Words

Q5.Describe the following features available in sql server Ans ;- a) database mirroring: - Database reflecting is an answer for expanding the accessibility of a SQL Server database. Reflecting is actualized on a for each database premise and works just with databases that utilization the full recuperation model. Database reflecting was presented with Microsoft SQL Server 2005 innovation that can be utilized to outline high-accessibility and elite answers for database repetition. It is intended to keep up a hot standby server with a transitionally reliable duplicate of the database. Reflecting is practical, fast, obliges no extraordinary equipment, and guarantees value-based consistency. This article will portray the distinctive methods of database reflecting and how it is not the same as different advancements. Here won t get into the specifics of the SQL Server 2008 upgrades however will take database reflecting is a basically programming answer for expanding database accessibility. Reflecting is actualized on a for every database premise a nd works just with databases that utilization the full recuperation model. The straightforward and mass logged recuperation models don t bolster database reflecting. Database reflecting is bolstered in SQL Server Standard and Enterprise. Database reflecting offers considerable accessibility and gives a simple to-oversee option or supplement to failover grouping or log shipping. At the point when a database reflecting session isShow MoreRelatedThe Project Management Methodologies4677 Words   |  19 Pageshistory, profiles, scanned documents and client and vendor correspondence and access to information No integration or synching of email systems Restricted customization of user interface core features No collaborative access to development server to deploy information or engineering web models Significant concern for information security and user access views Lack of a straightforward means to allow administrators top-level access to data Labor intensive IMS enhancements OverabundanceRead MoreDatabase Security28570 Words   |  115 Pagesother database models as well. For an overall discussion on basic database security concepts consult the surveys by Jajodia and Sandhu (1990a), Lunt and Fernandez (1990), or Denning (1988). For references to further readings consult the annotated bibliography by Pernul and Luef (1992). The outline of this Chapter is as follows: In the remainder of the opening Section we shortly review the relational data model, we introduce a simple example that will be used throughout the Chapter, we presentRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pagesbeing taken for granted 5. Promote an undated image 6. Visibility 7. Valuable community resource 8. Rising expectations 9. Survival 10. Beneficial to library image Source: â€Å"Library and Information Services Marketing† (September 2003), compiled and annotated by Marianne Steadley at the University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science and the University of Illinois Libraries, UI Current LIS Clips, Marketing Information Services 123 2. On a benign level, libraries, â€Å"like

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Term, Social Facilitation, By Floyd Allport - 1702 Words

The term â€Å"Social facilitation â€Å" was coined by Floyd Allport in 1924 and was recently defined by Karau as â€Å"a tendency for the presence of other people to enhance an individual’s performance on a simple or well-learned task but to reduce it on complex or unfamiliar tasks† ( 2012, p. 486). This phenomenon has been widely studied for over a century and has produced numerous theories to explain its occurrence . Beginning with Norman Triplett in 1898, who discovered a social facilitation effect in cyclists that were competing against others in a race,opposed to those racing alone (Aiello Feinberg, 2006) This was followed by research to dispute and support Tripletts claims, as many studies found performance impairment in social situations. In general, three different types of presences were examined: co-actors, audiences or observers and others that were simply present but not interacting in any way with the individual. (Karau , 2012) As of today it is still unclear what exactly causes a facilitating effect to performance of individuals ,yet it is still a highly relevant area of research as people never cease to strive to improve their performances and seek the knowledge of how this is achieved . This essay will argue , that despite the complexity and interaction of numerous factors required for Social faciliation to occur, presence of others can facilitate performance of simple tasks in the absence of distraction and when there is an expected evaluation byShow MoreRelatedHistorical Reference Of Social Psychology1169 Words   |  5 PagesReference of Social Psychology Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand how people’s opinions and behaviors are influenced by the actual presence or the implied presence of others. Social psychology is an integrative field that builds the gap between psychology and sociology. Sociology, on the other hand, is the scientific study of human behavior. In addition, social psychology is a comparatively new field that originated in the early 20th century. In 1954 Gordon Allport nominated AugusteRead MoreCompare and Contrast Functionalism and Structuralism14315 Words   |  58 PagesChapter 1 What is social psychology? LEARNING OUTCOMES When you have ï ¬ nished studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1 Outline the main differences between experimental and critical approaches to social psychology. 2 Describe the three main ‘metaphysical battles’ between them. 3 Trace the origins of social psychology through the work of William McDougall and William James, and the contributions made by Và ¶lkerpsychologie and crowd psychology. 4 Describe the two contrasting

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Black Holes Infinity And Beyond Essay Example For Students

Black Holes: Infinity And Beyond Essay If theories of their existence are true, black holes are the most powerful force in the knownphysical universe. Many people are familiar with the term black hole, but few people actually knowanything about them. A black hole forms as a result of a massive star running out of fuel to burn(Chaisson, 193). Once the star is no longer exerting outward force by burning off gases, it begins tocollapse under its own intense, inward gravity (Chaisson, 193). It is like slowly letting the air out of aballoon. Once the star is compacted to a certain size, while its mass, or weight, remains the same, itsgravity becomes so powerful that nothing can escape it (Hawking, 87). This critical size to weight ratiois known as the Schwarzchild Radius (Hawking, 87). Once a black hole is created in this way, aninvisible area, or line around it exists. If any object crosses this line, it can no longer escape thegravitational force of the black hole (Hawking, 87). This line is called the event horizon (Hawking , 87). If black holes are proven to exist, beyond theoretical physics, then they would probably be a verycommon anomaly in this universe. In 1915, Albert Einstein put forth the first real proposition of suchan anomaly in his ?Theory of Relativity? (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). In the 1930s, three physicists,doctors Volkoff, Snyder and Oppenheimer, were able to prove the validity of black holesmathematically. Since then, black holes have become a very important and integral part of science andthe over all understanding of the universe. It has been proven, mathematically, that black holes haveinfinite, gravity based, escape velocities and an immense effect on light, time and even the very fabricof space. All bodies in space have gravity. According to Einsteins ?Theory of Relativity?, this is becausebodies with a large mass, or weight, actually warp space (Chaisson, 77). For example, if a twodimensional sheet of cloth, stretched and suspended at four corners, represents space, and a bowlingball is placed in the center, the sheet will warp downward. If a golf ball is then set at the edge of thesheet and allowed to move freely it will be attracted toward the bowling ball, unless the golf ball istraveling at a speed great enough to not be effected by the curve. This critical speed is known as anescape velocity. This is the speed at which an object must travel to escape a bodys gravitational force(Chaisson, 77). If a body is compacted, such that its weight stays the same but its radius, or size,becomes smaller, its escape velocity increases in parallel (Chaisson, 196). The simple formula for this,in physics, states that a bodys escape velocity is equal to the square root of its mass, divi ded by itsradius (Chaisson, 77). For example, if a bodys mass is two-hundred, and its size is twelve and onehalf, the escape velocity would be four. If the size of the same body is reduced to two, while its massremained at two-hundred, the escape velocity increases to ten. Since a black holes size is alwaysdecreasing and its weight is always the same, the escape velocity is infinite (Chaisson, 195). Thismeans that nothing can escape a black hole past the event horizon, not even light. Light is made up of waves and particles. It was discovered, in 1676, by Danish astronomer,Ole Christenson, that light travels at a very high, but finite speed (Hawking, 18). These properties oflight govern that it must be subject to forces of nature, such as gravity. Light travels at such a highspeed that it is not observably effected by gravity, unless that gravity is very strong. A black holesgravity is powerful enough to trap light because its escape velocity, being infinite, exceeds the speedof light (Hawking, 82). This is why a black hole is black. Once light crosses the event horizon it isdrawn into the hole in space. Although the light is still hitting objects, it is not able to bounce off toindicate their existence to an observer, therefor the black hole appears as a void in space. Closing in onthe edge of the event horizon, light travels back to an observer at a slower and slower rate, until itfinally becomes invisible. This is due to heavy gravity and the effect that a blac k hole has on time(Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d , .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .postImageUrl , .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d , .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d:hover , .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d:visited , .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d:active { border:0!important; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d:active , .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7378b4edcb711283e9f44f625fbc491d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Women EssayAccording to Einsteins ?General Theory of Relativity?, time is not a constant (Hawking, 86). Time is relative to an observer and his or her environment (Hawking, 86). It has been proven that timemoves slower at higher speeds (Hawking, 86). An experiment was conducted in which twosynchronized atomic clocks were used. One was placed in a jet and flown around the Earth at threetimes the speed of sound, while the other was left stationary, on the ground (Hawking, 22). When thejet landed and the clocks were compared, the one in the jet displayed an earlier time. This leads to thereasoning that time is just as volatile as light or dirt. In cosmology, a singularity is an event or point thathas a future or a past, but not both (Hawking, 49). In human life, death would be considered asingularity. A black hole is also considered a singularity. If an object crosses the event horizon of ablack hole, it relatively ceases to exist, it has no future (Hawking, 88). Absolutely nothing in the knownuniverse can survive in or escape from a black hole, so it can be said logically that time is st oppedwithin the event horizon. The only way for an object to escape this fate would be for a strange anomalyto occur in the fabric of space, caused by a theoretically different type of black hole. If the mathematics that describe a black hole are reversed, the outcome is an object called awhite hole (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). As the complete opposite of a black hole, a white hole is anobject into which nothing can fall and objects are only spit out (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). At this point,white holes are strictly theory. Their existence is highly improbable. If certain properties, such asmotion or a positive or negative charge are applied to a black hole, then the possibility of a white holeforming within the event horizon arises (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). This leads to an even moreimprobable occurrence called a wormhole (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). In theory, a wormhole wouldtruly be a tear in the fabric of space. Since time essentially has no effect on a black or white hole, if anobject were to fall into a worm hole, it could conceivably be spit out anywhere in time or space (Bunn,Black Holes FAQ). If an object falls into a black hole, which has undergone the transformation into aworm hole, it could probably avoid hitting the singularity (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). Therefor it wouldnot be turned into spaghetti and compacted to the size of a base particle. Instead, it would follow theclosest thing to a straight line that it could find, which would be to slip completely through thewormhole (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). It sounds impossible, but it looks good on paper. If wormholescould exist, according to calculations, they would be highly unstable (Bunn, Black Holes FAQ). Ifanything were to disturb it, like an object passing through it, it would likely collapse (Bunn, BlackHoles FAQ). Though the equations are valid, wormholes most assuredly do not exist. If they did itwould probably send shivers up the science fiction communitys spine. In the book, Relatively Speaking, the Author, Eric Chaisson says, ?The world of science islittered with mathematically elegant theories that apparently have no basis in reality? (182). Althoughblack holes have not been conclusively proven to exist, there is strong evidence, in the observableuniverse, that they do. Black holes are very important to the world of cosmology. They allow for thestudy of common particles under very uncommon environmental variables. Scientists have vastlyincreased their knowledge of the universe and the properties of matter through the study of a blackholes effects on light, time and the fabric of the space. .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 , .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .postImageUrl , .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 , .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7:hover , .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7:visited , .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7:active { border:0!important; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7:active , .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7 .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1a9fab8ace4a9e436d70852b6f4679f7:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: One Child Policy In China EssayWorks CitedBunn, Ted ?Black Holes FAQ.? NSF Science and Technology Center (September 1995): Online. Internet., Eric. Relatively Speaking: Relativity, Black Holes, and the Fate of the Universe. New York:W.W. Norton Company, 1988. Hawking, Stephen. A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. New York: BantamBooks, 1988.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Henry VIII And Louis XIV Essay Research free essay sample

Henry VIII And Louis XIV Essay, Research Paper Henry VIII and Louis XIV Henry VIII and Louis XIV were both work forces whose achievements on a national degree for their several states of England and France were great, but whose really different personal jobs gave them a negative feeling in history. The two leaders had really different opinion manners, but with a few similar subjects throughout. Possibly the best thing to look at first is their very different attitudes toward God and God? s power in monarchy and province. Henry VIII on England grew up as a really strong Catholic, at the insisting of his female parent and male parent. He was known to be? a adult male of day-to-day devotionals, puting an illustration for his people? ( Canon 76 ) . His ain Hagiographas, most particularly a book of Catholicity entitled The Sanctoreum earned him the rubric from Pope Leo III the rubric? Defender of the Faith. We will write a custom essay sample on Henry VIII And Louis XIV Essay Research or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page ? His book had served as an reply to the instructions of Martin Luther, a adult male whose principals Henry subsequently put into consequence in his really ain state, in the Protestant Reformation. France, nevertheless, was a really strongly Catholic state where the Roman church had a great trade of influence. Louis, although supposed non to be a really fastidious devote of the faith, or any faith, took portion in a minor reorganisation of the Roman Catholic Church inside France. It is evident now that Louis fundamentally went along with the reforms dictated by the Catholic Pope in respects to faith. In economic affairs, the two swayers possibly differed even more greatly. Henry was a fastidious economic expert, frequently noticing about the disbursal of things at the royal tribunal, and taking action to hold whatever the latest discourtesy to the exchequer happened to be. Louis, nevertheless, spent abundantly, saving no disbursal for himself or his Lords. His ultimate end was one time once more to do the tribunal of France the centre of manner and art one time once more. He created Versailles, a freak of Baroque art, most of it gilded with pure gold and other cherished metal. It is a straggling state estate with an even more dramatic exterior than interior. Louis bankrupted the Treasury of France through another extrvangance every bit good: his wars. Louis fought four major wars. His great purpose was to do himself supreme in Europe. As a start, he planned to suppress all lands west of the Rhine River. He gained several of import districts, but was ever checked by the confederations that other states formed to oppose him. In the War of Spanish Succession, England took an of import portion in get the better ofing him, taking to animus between the two states and their several swayers. This war, which ended in 1714, left France exhausted and weakened. Both work forces had a common ability to see the goodness in other work forces as royal advisers. Both hired surprisingly intelligent and wise work forces to run their personal businesss for them, possibly Henry even more than Louis XIV. One of Henry? s head advisers is immortalized in Shakespeare? s? The Life and Times of Kind Henry VIII? . Cardinal Wolsey is spoken of at that place as? a adult male such as history had neer yet laid their eyes upon, a adult male who could hold others acquire his ain will enforced? ( Shakespeare 78 ) . Wolsey spent small clip at the British tribunal, but the clip he spent was valuable. He served as head adviser to a immature, freshly crowned, and waxy King Henry. He formed Henry? s thoughts about authorities, spoke for the sovereign in assembly, and reputedly taught Henry everything he knew about economic sciences from an early age. Two other advisers are besides known to history as functioning in Henry? s subsequently life, Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More. Similarly, Louis XIV, in a grade of true mastermind, was wise plenty to appoint person wiser than himself to run the authorities. He had many, and curiously, most of their names have been erased from history. Jean Baptise Colbert, adviser to Louis in his formative old ages as a sovereign, subsequently wrote in prison, ? The adult male was a sap, but would non environ himself with other saps? ( Olivier 178 ) . In their personal lives, the sovereign had a great figure of similarities. Both Henry VIII and Louis XIV were fond of adult females, drink, and argument. Henry is possibly most celebrated for his six married womans, and the bloody ends that most of them came to. Out of six, merely two were non banished, publically executed, or otherwise humiliated. A speedy summation: Katharine Aragon of Spain, Henry? s foremost bride. She was banished from royal position and stripped of her rubric after she failed to bring forth boies and Henry fell in love with a immature lady in waiting named Anne Boleyn. Anne Boleyn: was executed for criminal conversation and charges of witchery. Jane Seymour: recorded in history as the lone married woman Henry genuinely loved. Died a few hebdomads after giving birth to Henry? s much wanted boy. Anne of Clefs: Princess of Germany who was non beautiful in Henry? s eyes, and was sent off. Catherine Howard: Commoner executed for criminal conversation. Catherine Parr: Outlived Henry. Henry jousted in many tourneies until a leg hurt prevented this type of activity. He besides grew rather sick and corpulent in ulterior life, but neer lost his love of athleticss and other athletic activities. Louis XIV liked to watch the tourneies more than he liked to really participate in them. But his lascivious wonts did non differ much from those of his neighbour across the Channel. He was married to Queen Marie Therese, but reportedly had at least ten other kept womans at one clip. He had three kids by his married woman, but purportedly twelve other illicit kids by his kept womans. It was, in fact, some of these personal wonts that led to the ruins of the sovereign. Henry VIII, who had been the great? Defender of the Faith? in his earlier old ages, was in a spot of a quandary. He no longer wanted to be married to his aging married woman, piously Catholic Katharine of Aragon. He was in love with a immature lady named Anne Boleyn. Any Catholic knows that divorce is frowned upon. But in order to get married Anne, Henry needed this divorce. He broke from the Catholic church, and, with the aid of Thomas Cromwell, another top adviser, created the Church of England. Unfortunately, to pass over out all cells of resistance, Henry was forced to destruct many who did non back up this interruption with the Church. Another thing lending to Henry? s ruin was his unwellness. Legend has it that Anne Boleyn? s spirit took retaliation on the 1 who had ordered her executing. It is more likely, harmonizing tomany modern historiographers, that Henry had a virus much like that which his male parent died of. He suffered a painful terminal: invariably coughing up blood, and crippled by a flaring leg hurt. For the last few old ages of his life, he was unable to regulate his state good, and power fled from England. Louis XIV had a really different job. His trouble was merely that he spent more than France could afford. Not merely had the edifice of Versailles badly disabled the Treasury, his excessive disbursement on his assorted kept womans and illicit kids got out of manus. He was to the point, by the terminal of his reign, of puting up a well-found and equipped estate for each of these households. Not merely that, but the Spanish War of Succession badly crippled the exchequer, and Louis neer could genuinely raised the revenue enhancements plenty to cover his love of these? small wars? and adult females. Louis was known in Europe for being the longest reigning male monarch in all of modern history. He kept tribunal at his assorted castles and fought in his wars for about 72 old ages. After his cheif adviser Jean Baptiste Colbert died in 1685, the reign of the Sun King became less canonized. He forced the baronial households to remain at tribunal at Versailles, making the job of absentee landlords for the common mans, who lived in comparative poorness compared to the great luster of Versailles. Louis died bit by bit of disease, and after his reign, political influence in France declined greatly for a figure of old ages. However, France remembers him in a much better manner than history admires Henry the VIII. Both sovereigns suffered troubled lives, and still managed to carry through great things for England and France. Henry VIII raised scientific consciousness and grasp for art that had antecedently been absent from England. Louis Fourteen added a new dimension to the humanistic disciplines such as the universe had neer seen. His reign was known as ranking above all others in art and literature, every bit good as dance. And yet, even today they are remembered for the most portion their weaknesss, Henry for his marital problems and Louis for his economic extravagancies. It might make better to weigh the pros and cons of history alternatively of unsighted judgement on the footing of few facts when thought of Henry VIII and Louis XIV.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Colombia Essays (1223 words) - San Ciro De Acosta, Free Essays

Colombia Essays (1223 words) - San Ciro De Acosta, Free Essays Colombia La situacion de los derechos humanos en Colombia es, sin duda, la peor de America Latina. Las ejecuciones extra-judiciales, la tortura, las desapariciones, las violaciones contra ninos e indigenas han alcanzado en los ultimos anos en proporsiones epidemicas. Voy a hablar de los derechos humanos en respecto al conversaciones del presidente con las guerrillas, la libertad de expresion y de prensa y el Plan Colombia. Colombia es una democracia constitucional multipartidista en la cual los partidos liberales y conservadores han dominado la escena politica durante un largo tiempo. Los ciudadanos colombianos eligieron en 1998 al presidente Andres Pastrana del partido conservador y un cogreso bicameral controlado por el partido liberal en unas elecciones libres, justas y trasparentes, pese a los intentos de intimidacion y fraude de parte de los grupos paramilitares, las guerrillas y los narcotraficantes. Los principales protagonistas fueron las fuerzas de seguridad del gobierno, los grupos paramilitares, la guerrilla y los narcotraficantes, mientras que en otras fueron los grupos paramilitares los que se enfrentaron a la guerrilla, y en otras la guerrilla ataco a los miembros desmovilizados de facciones guerrilleras rivales. Los grupos guerrilleros mas importantes son las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) y el Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional (ELN). Estan integrados por un numero aproximado de 11.000 a 17.000 combatientes permanentes organizados en mas de 100 grupos semiautonomous. En julio de 1998, el presidente Pastrana se reunio con el lider de las FARC Manuel Marulanda Velez y acepto establecer una zona desmilitarizada en la cual las dos partes pudieran adelantar dialogos directos de paz. En enero, Marulanda no se presento para la inauguracion formal programada de los dialogos de paz en la zona de despeje. El presidente Pastrana y Marulanda se reunieron nuevamente en mayo y acordaron la agenda para las negociaciones formales y los procedimientos a la creacion de una comision internacional de verificacion que se encargaria de garantizar que ambas partes cumplieron con los terminos del despeje. Los grupos paramilitares y guerrilleros perpetraron la gran mayoria de las matanzas politicas y extrajudiciales. En todo el pais, los grupos paramilitares mataron, torturaron y amenazaron a civiles sospechosos para simpatizar con la guerrilla. Tambien las fuerzas paramilitares se disputaron con la guerrilla y participaron directamente en la produccion y el trafico de n arcoticos. Durante este ano, el presidente Pastrana se junto otra vez con Marulanda para hablar del plan Colombia y para alcanzar un proceso de paz. El segundo problema en Colombia es la libertad de expresion y de prensa. La constitucion contempla la libertad de prensa, sin embargo el gobierno respeta en general este derecho en la practica, hubo algunas excepciones significativas. Los periodistas practican regularmente la autocensura a fin de evitar represalia y hostigamiento. Sin embargo, los medios impresos privados publicaron una gama amplia de opiniones politicas y en ocasiones manifestan opiniones duras contra el gobierno sin temor de las represalias administrativas. Todos los ciudadanos tienen derecho a solicitar una mocion de tutela en casos relacionados con la violacion de los derechos constitucionales. Esto le brinda todos las personas y organizaciones, incluidos los medios de comunicacin, un mecanismo para criticar las violaciones de los derechos fundamentales. Por parte tanto de los entes gubernamentales como de los privados. Los periodistas trabajan en general en un clima de amenaza e intimidacion. Debido al temor por su seguridad, los periodistas suelen abstenerse de publicar o sacar a la luz noticias contrarias a los intereses de los grupos paramilitares, guerrilleros o de narcotraficantes. Durante el ano, nueve periodistas murieron a manos de atacantes desconocidos, aunque no todos los asesinatos pudieron atribuirse directamente a su trabajo. Por ejemplo, en el 11 de abril Hernando Moreno locutor de la radio fue asesinado en casa de un amigo. Aunque no estaba trabajando para ningun medio en particular en ese momento, habia escrito algunos informes ocasionales criticando a los grupos paramilitares para el Sur Treinta Dias, periodico local de El Plato, Magdalena. Tambien el gobierno respeta la libertad academica y hubo toda una gama de actividades politicas en las universidades de todo el pais. Sin embargo, los grupos paramilitares y guerrilleros mantienen presencia en muchas universitarias. Tanto los paramilitares como la guerrilla senalaron como blancos de asesinatos politicos a profesores de las escuelas publicas de primaria y secundaria. En 1998, el

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Impact of print media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Impact of print media - Essay Example Media can promote democracy. In fact, media can be an important incubator of dissent and principled opposition to the military regime (Tironi and Sunkel 2000). How audience is targeted. A clearly defined target audience is important in any media such as print. Targeting an audience as a concept is best explained by examples. Consider the Alliance for Full Acceptance (AFFA), a social justice organization achieving equality and acceptance for gay, lesbian, transgender and bisexual (GLTB) people ("We are" 2007). For their primary target audience, they have the "moveable middle," or heterosexuals whose opinions can be "moved" toward the positive through education. This group had conducted research beforehand and knew too well that a greater percentage of well educated people, females and higher income people, will be less prejudiced against homosexual people. They also learned that the general heterosexual population is extremely under-educated as regards GLBT people. Finally, they also came to know that heterosexuals are largely unaware of the lack of civil rights GLBT people experience, and are exposed largely to stereotypes and myths about them. Heterosexuals then became their primary target audience. ... Their energy, they decided, is to be saved for those who will listen ("We are" 2007). In targeting audience, therefore, research is needed where time, money, and effort could be used most efficiently. AFFA had to consider if the people who will be exposed to the message are above average in terms of education and income when placing media. If positive, they can become the best target market for change in attitudes about GLBT issues. They had to conduct a survey toward this objective to be able to get reliable data. In some media campaigns, a secondary target audience may also be obtained. The AFFA, for example, has the GLBT community being exposed to their message as secondary target audience, the purpose of which is to instill confidence and self-esteem. The objective of media campaign at times dictates choice of the primary target group. For example, to change sex selective behaviour, the target group should be those who seek the services to determine the sex of the fetus and later to abort it ("Sex Selection" 2007). It was found out that it is not effective to target medical practitioners who supply their services exclusively through mass media. Instead, the young unmarried women are best the target audience as they are the most open to questioning inherited values and behaviors, display the greatest conflict with choices forced upon them, and express discomfort with practices of sex selection. Mostly, they appear to be the most amenable to behaviour change ("Sex Selection 2007). In both instances mentioned here, the common denominator for target audience appears to be those most responsive to behavior change. What research literature says is first considered, then, time, money and effort are spent in planning the most efficient way how

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Managing Diversity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Managing Diversity - Essay Example (2008) Managing Diversity; the business case; London; CIPD] In this age of globalization, there is much controversy on the coming together of all kinds of people for a common purpose. Diversity is slowly becoming a common feature in schools, workplaces and communities. Due to this development, a lot of issues crop up such as acceptance of different races and cultures, sexual preferences, educational qualifications and changes in practices previously viewed as established norms. In the workplace, it takes various strategies to facilitate people from various backgrounds to work together towards the same goals. Motivation of people must be one strong quality of a great manager. The concept of diversity has been broadened to include all â€Å"individuals who bring unique perspectives or outlooks to the organization† (Schakelford, 2004, p.53). That means, it not only includes the traditional categories of race and gender, but also people with disabilities, various sexual orientations, and other non-traditional categories considered having â€Å"diversity of thought† or those from different disciplines, college degrees, socio-economic backgrounds, etc. It was Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who inspired the concept of diversity when he advocated that people should be judged by their character, not by the color of their skin. This propelled lawmakers to come up with laws that provide equal opportunity to all (Mor Barak, 2000). These laws have been designed protect anyone from being discriminated against by reason of sex, marital status, ethnic or national origin, color, race, nationality, age, disability, religion, and differing terms of employment, including pay for jobs of equal value. â€Å"Equal opportunity† is a means by which a person receives equal access in society. â€Å"Equal opportunities approach† is premised on the principle that all people can avail of